积淀                                            

Arduino 自平衡小车,制作经验记录与分享

arduino 赵浮云 515℃ 0评论

一、以下为物料清单:
NO 名稱 數量 功能
1 電機JGA25-371 2Pcs 提供動力
2 電機驅動模塊L298n 1Pcs 驅動馬達
3 Arduino nano V3.0 1Pcs 主控制晶片
4 HC-06藍牙通訊模塊 1Pcs 與藍牙設備通訊
5 JY521-MP6050 陀螺儀加速計 1Pcs 提供平衡依據
6 機構件 若干 拼接
二、图片

141106bs6cgf6clesesffu
三、算法
1.有参考过卡尔曼滤波,加Arduino 内置PID库并使用Processing 图形工具在线调试PID参数方法,小车运动趋势有,但是无法站立,并且参数始终没调好。
2.参考高通滤波方法,效果出奇的好。调试了下参数,就站起来了。

四、code分享。
1.请大家重点看MP6050 initial 及公式。如有疑问,愿意解答。

//copyright by kaiser 20140423 V1.0
void loop()
{
//////////////////////////////////////MP6050//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
accelgyro.getMotion6(&ax, &ay, &az, &gx, &gy, &gz);
Angle_Calcu();
Serial.print("Angle");Serial.println(Angle);
if (abs(Angle)<45) /////////////////up-right judge { Input=Angle; //myPID.SetTunings(Kp, Ki, Kd); //myPID.Compute(); Output=Kp*Angle+Kd*Gyro_y; Serial.print("Output");Serial.println(Output); SetMotorVoltage(Output,Output); } else{SetMotorVoltage(0,0);//角度大于45度 停止PWM输出} if(millis()>serialTime)
{
SerialReceive();
SerialSend();
serialTime+=500;
}
}
}

复制代码
2.我把程序在更新下,最终版上传。

//copyright by kaiser 20140521 V1.0
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
#include "Wire.h" //serial
#include "I2Cdev.h" //IIC
#include "MPU6050.h" //acc&gyro Sensor
//Define Variables we'll be connecting to
char val='s';int Speed_need=0;int Turn_need=0;
float speeds,speeds_filter, positions;
float diff_speeds,diff_speeds_all;
////////////////////PID parameter///////////////////////////////////////
double Output=0;
float Kp=10,Kd=0.06,Ksp = 2.8,Ksi = 0.11; //

////////////////////////////////////////////////
MPU6050 accelgyro;
int16_t ax, ay, az;
int16_t gx, gy, gz;
/********************角度参数**************/
float Gyro_y; //Y轴陀螺仪数据暂存
float Angle_ax; //由加速度计算的倾斜角度
float Angle; //小车最终倾斜角度
//int Setpoint=0;
////////////////////////////////////////Pin assignment///////////////////////////////////////
int PinA_right= 2; //interrupt 0
int PinA_left= 3; //interrupt 1
int E_left =6;//ENA
int M_right =7;
int M_right2=8;
int E_right =5; //ENB
int M_left =9;
int M_left2 =10;
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
int PWM_right=0; int PWM_left=0;
int PWM_left_least=87; int PWM_right_least=88;//left:77,right:78
///////////////////////////////interrupt for Speed/////////////////////////////////
int count_right =0;
int count_left =0;
int old_time=0;
int flag;
void Code_right(){ if(Output>=0){count_right += 1;}else{count_right -= 1;} }//if only +,can't stand up 编码器码盘计数加一
void Code_left(){ if(Output>=0){count_left += 1;} else{count_left -= 1;}}// 编码器码盘计数加一
/////////////////////////Right&Left&Stop///////////////////////////////////////////////
void SetMotorVoltage(int nLeftVol, int nRightVol) {
if(nLeftVol >=0)
{ digitalWrite(M_left,LOW);
digitalWrite(M_left2,HIGH);
} else {
digitalWrite(M_left,HIGH);
digitalWrite(M_left2,LOW);
nLeftVol=-nLeftVol;
}
if(nRightVol >= 0) {
digitalWrite(M_right,LOW);
digitalWrite(M_right2,HIGH);
} else {
digitalWrite(M_right,HIGH);
digitalWrite(M_right2,LOW);
nRightVol=-nRightVol;
}
if(nLeftVol>255) { nLeftVol = 255 ; } //防止PWM值超过255
if(nRightVol>255) { nRightVol = 255 ; }//防止PWM值超过255
analogWrite(E_left,nLeftVol);
analogWrite(E_right,nRightVol);
}

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
void Angle_Calcu(void) {
Angle_ax = (ax+1942)/238.2 ; //去除零点偏移1942,//16384*3.14/1.2*180//弧度转换为度,
Gyro_y = -(gy-119.58)/16.4; //去除零点偏移119,2000deg/s 16.4 LSB/(deg/s)250---131 ,负号为方向处理
//Serial.print("Angle_ax,Angle_gy");Serial.print(Angle_ax);Serial.println(Angle_gy);
Angle=0.97*(Angle+Gyro_y*0.0005)+0.03*Angle_ax;
//Kalman_Filter(Angle_ax,Gyro_y); //卡尔曼滤波计算倾角
}

void setup()
{
Wire.begin();
Serial.begin(9600);
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
accelgyro.reset();//reset
delay(1);
accelgyro.setClockSource(MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_YGYRO);//PLL with Y Gyro reference*/
accelgyro.setFullScaleGyroRange(MPU6050_GYRO_FS_2000);//0x1B Value 0x18 2000°/s
accelgyro.setFullScaleAccelRange(MPU6050_ACCEL_FS_4);//0x1C Value 0x18 16g
accelgyro.setDLPFMode(MPU6050_DLPF_BW_5);//0x06 means acc 5Hz delay19.0ms Gyro 5Hz delay 18.6ms
accelgyro.setTempSensorEnabled(true);//disable temsensor
accelgyro.setSleepEnabled(false);
Serial.println("Testing device connections...");
Serial.println(accelgyro.testConnection() ? "MPU6050 connection successful" : "MPU6050 connection failed");
////////////////////////pin mode////////////////////////////////////////
pinMode(E_right, OUTPUT); pinMode(M_right, OUTPUT);pinMode(M_right2, OUTPUT); //right
pinMode(E_left, OUTPUT); pinMode(M_left, OUTPUT);pinMode(M_left2, OUTPUT); //left
pinMode(PinA_right,INPUT);pinMode(PinA_left,INPUT);// in 0 in 1
Serial.println("Pin mode ...");
/////////////////////////////interrupt/////////////////////////////////////////////
attachInterrupt(0, Code_right, FALLING);attachInterrupt(1, Code_left, FALLING);

}

void loop()
{
if (Serial.available() > 0){val = Serial.read();Serial.println(val);}
switch(val){
case 'a':Speed_need=30;Turn_need=0;positions=80;break;//Go
case 'b':Speed_need=10;Turn_need=-10;positions=10;break;//right
case 'c':Speed_need=10;Turn_need=10;positions=10;break;//left
case 'd':Speed_need=0;Turn_need=0;positions=0;break;
default:Speed_need=0;Turn_need=0;positions=0;break;}//stop

//Speed_need=30;Turn_need=0;positions=80;
//SetMotorVoltage(255,255);
//Kp=15,Kd=0.09,Ksp = 2.8,Ksi = 0.11;
//Serial.print("count_left");Serial.println(count_left);
accelgyro.getMotion6(&ax, &ay, &az, &gx, &gy, &gz);
Angle_Calcu();
//Serial.print("Angle");Serial.println(Angle);
PWM_Calcu();

//if(millis()-old_time>=500){ Serial.print("count_right");Serial.print(count_right);Serial.print("count_left");Serial.println(count_left);old_time=millis();count_right=0;count_left=0;}
}
void PWM_Calcu(void)
{
if (abs(Angle)>40)
{SetMotorVoltage(0,0);}//角度大于45度 停止PWM输出
else
{ //Speed_need=30;Turn_need=0;positions=80;
//////////////////////
speeds=(count_left + count_right)*0.5;
diff_speeds = count_left - count_right;
diff_speeds_all += diff_speeds;
speeds_filter *=0.85; //一阶互补滤波
speeds_filter +=speeds*0.15;
positions += speeds_filter;
positions += Speed_need;
positions = constrain(positions, -2300, 2300);//抗积分饱和
////////////////////
Output=Kp*Angle+Kd*Gyro_y+ Ksp*speeds_filter + Ksi*positions ;
//Serial.print("Output");Serial.println(Output);
if(Turn_need==0){PWM_right=Output-diff_speeds_all;
PWM_left=Output+diff_speeds_all;}

PWM_right=Output+Turn_need;
PWM_left=Output-Turn_need;

if(PWM_right>=0){PWM_right+=PWM_right_least;}else{PWM_right-=PWM_right_least;}
if(PWM_left>=0){PWM_left+=PWM_left_least;}else{PWM_left-=PWM_left_least;}

SetMotorVoltage(PWM_left,PWM_right);}
count_left = 0;
count_right = 0;
}

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

五、吃水不忘挖井人,以下为我的参考文章,前辈们还是要非常尊敬的。
1.Processing 图形工具在线调试PID参数教程。http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_69bcf45201019bp8.html
2.PVCBOT【9号】忐忑者·自平衡双轮小车。http://blog.163.com/pvc_robot/blog/static/17527643220113334818803/
3.基于Arduino+MPU6050+Tp-link 703n平衡小车。http://www.geek-workshop.com/thread-8991-1-1.html
4.虚拟NXT的NXTway-GS自行平衡两轮机器人教程 http://bbs.cmnxt.com/thread-7697-1-1.html
5.第二个Arduino小车 两轮自平衡(Arduino PID方式)。http://www.geek-workshop.com/thread-467-1-1.html
6.碉堡的双轮平衡小车(萧大哥) http://www.geek-workshop.com/thread-9005-1-1.html
7.总算实现了 PID 调速(重点推荐)http://www.embedream.com/ndxs/2011-04-23/121.html

转载请注明:赵浮云的blog » Arduino 自平衡小车,制作经验记录与分享

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